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The use of dehumanisation throughout the novel ‘Birdsong’ by Sebastian Faulks February 18, 2014

Filed under: Birdsong — sophiejones01 @ 10:33 pm

‘Birdsong’ is a contemporary novel written by Sebastian Faulks in 1993. The novel is written in 3rd person narrative suggesting a opinion viewpoint. Faulks begins the novel before the First World War, establishing a pre-war society which was prevalent across Europe at this time, showing social tensions and a possible cause for the war including concerns of nationalism and the rivalry for trade between countries. When Stephen arrives in France, he unknowingly establishes and underlines a theme of greed and greater profit for lower costs-a theme carried out throughout the novel. These lower costs are essentially the wages for the work force which Stephen emphases the monetary worth of the lower class, foreshadowing the grave use of the soldiers further on in the novel.

Faulks begins his novel in the Edwardian period , examining the causes and the rise of nationalism throughout the country as war breaks out. The rise of nationalism is extremely important to remember throughout the novel, men were obsessed with the idea of money and profit and the deafening roar of nationalism quickly overshadowed every concern and moral as war began. As industries were modernised, workers were no longer needed unless it were to operate the machinery. These workers quickly became cogs in a machine in one massive operation ran by greed and the need for nationalism. The soldiers fighting and risking their lives for their country are likened to cogs in a machine, as they are thought of mere tools to be used, machinery language is used to dehumanise and de-emote the soldiers sacrificed for a country.

Stephen travels to France describing the picturesque scene of The Somme. The simple and pastoral imagery described “On the damp grass were chestnut trees, lilac and willows, cultivated to give shade and quietness to their owners” is ironic to the horrors of the war and the destruction of the landscape later seen in the novel. This idyllic setting is merely a façade to to hide the cracks and the mask of an immoral and corrupt society. The initial description of Azaire’s wealthy and prosperous grand house suggests the impression of power, wealth and security within the family and household “there was a formidable front door with iron facings”, the iron suggests the emerge of nationalisation and the established industrial revolution and how it progresses throughout the period. This rich and grand description contrasts severely with the strong class distinction of the children in “ragged clothes”. This clearly shows the social divide and the poverty that was a present feature of society, yet in war all soldiers are equal, all attempting to survive the devastating war and haunting events.

The novel swiftly moves on to the outbreak of war and the chaos the soldiers are forced to suffer with the relentless attack of bombs being dropped and the piercing screams of the bullets being fired around the men. The war echoes war poets such as Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon.  These poets were the complete contrast to pro-war propaganda poets such as Jessie Pope as they told the unheard catastrophic reality of the war. The unnatural sounds of battle and the constant buzzing noise of the war around the men essentially dehumanises them. The “sharp wailing” and the “shrill, demented sound” cuts through the chaotic atmosphere of the bullets being fired and mentally and physically destroys the soldiers who are forced to listen to the piercing sounds around them. The word “demented” could possibly suggest how the war is quickly twisting and ruining the soldiers mental state after being forced to endure the war.

Faulks uses the dehumanisation as the most central theme of the novel as well as the class distinction seen earlier in the contrasting images of the greedy rich and the scavenging poor. Faulks unimaginably illustrates how these young men, these normal civilians, have been taken and transformed into unnatural machines, their feelings and mind numbed to their job of slaughtering the opposing side whilst enduring horrific circumstances. Stephen, ‘Birdsong’s protagonist and Faulk’s mouthpiece, questions the war and its purpose concluding that “this is not a war, this is an exploration of how far men can be degraded”. This realisation of Stephen, a universal thought applied to all soldiers risking their lives for their country, questions and finally understands that innocent men glorified by their country’s uniform will be pushed to the  appalling and sickening extremes of war.

Towards the end of the novel, we see how Elizabeth’s sole purpose is to represent the civilians at home completely ignorant to the true horrors of the grave reality the soldiers endured daily. Stephen states how  “No one in England knows what this is like” suggesting the resentment and anger towards those who were not literally laying their lives down for their country. Stephen’s anger could initially be aimed at the propaganda and how the war was glorified to persuade young naive men to enlist, not truly understanding the true terrors the war held for them, an act of man’s inhumanity to mankind. Elizabeth, for the audience, represents the lack of education of the First World War. As she slowly discovers and unravels only the edge of the shocking reality, Elizabeth not only reminds us of the horrors of war but how it was in fact not that long ago. Elizabeth’s purpose in this novel is not only to expose the readers to the devastation of war but also how easily it can be forgotten, putting time context into the novel. The novel finishes with an air of finality and a sense of the future with a new generation being born with optimism that life will be different.

Elizabeth adding time context into the novel only makes it more blatantly clear how men a few years ago could glorify such a monstrous and appalling event and persuade young men to literally lay down their lives for their country. For me, Faulks executes the sheer volume of the dehumanisation of men, how men were pushed into an chaotic and atmosphere and relentlessly attacked by other men, forced to commit massacres all for “what they had been told was their country”.  This sickening concept not only dehumanised the once regular civilians, but also portrays how easily man can commit the up-most inhumane act against mankind.


Useful links on historical context and critics for ‘Catch-22’ February 16, 2014

Filed under: Uncategorized — sophiejones01 @ 4:20 pm

Whilst looking for critics and interpretations on ‘Catch-22’, I came across a website that discussed the historical context of the time Heller was writing the novel and what critics of that time period thought and their opinions. I found it quite useful in regards to how well received the novel was and the impact of Heller’s writing.


Film adaptation of Catch-22 February 13, 2014

Filed under: Uncategorized — sophiejones01 @ 5:16 pm

In class we watched the first half of the 1973 film adaptation of Joseph Heller’s world-renowned novel, Catch-22. 

Whilst watching the film, we really saw how the use of satire came into play. Only when you understand how satire works, can you really understand the effects of it in literature. When Snowdon dies whilst flying, all of the irony, exaggeration and comic imagery that has just made the audience laugh, soon transforms into recoil and repulse as we are suddenly introduced into grotesque imagery and how gut wrenching it truly was for those experiencing it.  

When we see Milo, the mess officer, is persuading the colonel about his idea of selling eggs to make a profit. The use of irony is strong especially in this scene as although the country is involved with the war effort and the country is fighting the opposition, they still insist on exploiting their own men by co-operating with foreigners. While the two men are discussing Milo’s money making scheme, a plane crashes and sets on fire behind them. Both men are completely ignorant to this disastrous scene happening beside them, literally letting innocent men die to discuss ways to make profit. This again links into the war and how the reason for the massacre of a countries men is greed. 

Satire is also present within a conversation between Major Major and his assistant. Major Major tells his assistant to only let people into his office “when I’m not there”. His assistant is directed to keep people waiting outside until he has gone and to then let them in. This scene exposes the bad behaviour and poor attitudes towards jobs and responsibilities. 

When the medal ceremony is taking place, Yossarian goes up to collect his medal naked. He refuses to wear his uniform so there is nothing to pin his medal onto. He doesn’t want to be used and labelled by the army. The play on the words ‘pinning on’, the pinning of the medal onto a soldiers uniform could also suggest pinning something on someone and the ludicrous and bureaucracy of the rules and the army itself. Satire also makes us question everything, in this scene we are questioning what makes a soldier and what does it mean to be a soldier in uniform? All soldiers are just ordinary civilians, yet their uniform labels them as something different. 

Yossarian also uses his medal to attempt to impress a women. He meets her when in Rome and tells her he was awarded a medal for “killing fish”. This could be another play on words to suggest that everything is part of the was effort and people are dying like fish. The war is killing people “like fish”, this could not only suggest the rapidity of death as a consequence of the war, but also how these people are likened to animals. This interpretation suggests the worthlessness of the soldiers and civilians all intertwined in the military precision and mechanic structure of war.


The last scene we watched was when Nately is speaking to an old man in Rome and tells him how it is “better to die on one’s feet than live on one’s knees”. However, the old man inverts it to “It is better to live on one’s feet than die on one’s knees”. This change in Natley’s phrase is the old man valuing survival rather than bravery and freedom. Nately shows the pure American ignorance and arrogance and says that America is the “best fed, best trained”, however he does not realise that he is telling an Italian, whose ancestors were the most powerful invaders in history and how their imperialism that was responsible for spreading democracy the American is now talking about, resulting in strong irony in the scene. 


The use of satire in Jonathan Swift’s ‘A Modest Proposal…’ and Joseph Heller’s ‘Catch-22′ February 9, 2014

Filed under: Uncategorized — sophiejones01 @ 11:05 pm

Satire is the use of humour, irony and exaggeration to ridicule and criticise people’s stupidity. It is especially used in contemporary politics or other topical issues of the period. When looking and using satire, main characteristics of it are humour, grotesque and comic imagery, exaggeration to imply irony and caricatures.

‘A Modest Proposal’ written by Jonathan swift in 1729 is a prime example of the use of satire. During this period, thousands of people living in Ireland were suffering the horrific circumstances of poverty and consequently dying. Swift’s satirical essay was written to criticise the harsh exploitation of Irishmen by the politicians of the time, shocking them with grotesque imagery and questions dripping with irony for them to realise their responsibilities of the country. In ‘A Modest Proposal’, Swift presents the characteristics of satire well in his writing, especially the use of grotesque and exaggerated images and irony. When he says “A young healthy child at a year old is the most delicious, nourishing and wholesome food”, the irony and grotesque images in this sentence is blatantly clear to shock the politicians of the country to realise the ridiculousness of Swift’s proposal to reflect the ridiculousness in society.

Irony is a well used characteristic of satire and plays a vital role as it sets the tone for the piece of literature. It is clearly shown in Swift’s writing, his reflection of society interlinking with his bitter views. When Swifts writes of how young children are the most “wholesome of food, whether stewed, roasted, baked or boiled” he then goes onto to talking about the different ways to serve children, the French names aimed at the upper classes and the more educated in the society of the time, as it was felt they would be better adapt to interpret Swift’s messages. Perhaps this clear aim towards the upper class and the higher educated is purposeful as only those selected groups in society could change things for the lower classes, the message in Swift’s writing used to shock the people in charge such as the government whilst in a high-hearted, irony filled tones.

Catch-22 is also another outstanding example of the clever use of satire in literature. The way Heller describes the sudden death of the “soldier in white” is so comical and unexpected it instantly grabs the readers attention. The blunt and serious edge to the tone only adds a comical spin to the dark humour of the story, clear characteristics of satire.

Swift writes of “Slaughterhouses could be set up in the most convenient places in our major cities and I have been assured that there are plenty of butchers seeking work” an obvious solution written so seriously that it is clear Swift has taken the matter in hand and thought of a efficient mechanical solution ready to be placed into action, a rather extreme measure use to catch the attention of readers.

Again, in Catch-22, extremism is used when Yossarian writes to his family telling them how he has to “go on a rather dangerous mission and would write again once he had returned”, however this excuse put into place whilst he seeks refuge and haven in hospital to escape the horrors of seems extremely exaggerated and extreme.

Overall, both Swift and Heller write with clear and clever use of satirical characteristics to give their literature a dark humour and a blunt edge, thus making them stand out from other pieces of literature.




Explore the importance of the use of dehumanisation of young soldiers throughout Wilfred Owen’s work November 17, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — sophiejones01 @ 8:48 pm

Wilfred Owen was renowned for his shocking and controversial opinions of war expressed in his poetry. From his first-hand experiences from fighting in the First World War, Owen captures the true essence and emotion of the soldiers enduring the everyday life of the catastrophic war. Owen’s poetry expresses the anger and bitterness towards the poorly treated soldiers fighting for their country, his writing being universal for all soldiers fighting in the battlefield. I feel Owen is more concerned with the proliferation of weapons and how the young soldiers respond to having them.  Throughout Owen’s poems there are numerous literary devices and references to dehumanise the soldiers, representing how they were treated as objects or animals, not human beings. Throughout his poetry, Owen pours the everyday tragedy and harsh reality into his poetry creating a true reflection of what the soldiers really faced whilst they endured the war.

‘Arms and the Boy’ was Owens earliest poem, written in 1915, its bitter tone focuses solely on the dehumanisation of the young soldiers fighting. The line “Or give him cartridges of fine zinc teeth, sharp with the sharpness of grief and death.” Suggests how the soldiers are already morphing into the weapons. The weaponry reference has changed the purpose of the soldiers, from young boys they have morphed into killing machines for the sole purpose of massacring the enemy. The bitter tone underlining this poem represents Owen’s disgust of war, an attitude that continues throughout his poetry.  Throughout Owen’s poetry we can see the use of sound devices such as alliteration and sibilance used in close triplets giving the imitated noise created by the use of weapons on the battlefield. The irregular rhythm of the lines governed by sound devices in ‘Arms and the Boy’ the words ‘blind, blunt bullet-heads’ imitate the rhythm of the bullets being fired.

In ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’, Owen questions why the soldiers killed fighting for their country did not receive an appropriate funeral, instead being left in the battlefield like mere weapons. Owen asks “What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?” creating the idea that these young men are merely a mass of animals ready to massacred with no honour of a funeral-a basic human right. This poem for me illustrates Owen’s anger towards the dehumanisation of soldiers, his personification of weapons reflecting his sarcasm and irony. “Only the stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle”, Owen’s use of alliteration imitates the blunt rhythm of the bullets being fired through the soldier’s bodies, this shocking and gruesome image conjured up to shock the civilians at home to the real realities of war, instead of the Jessie Pope glorified propaganda poetry of the period.

Owen used personification throughout his poetry to represent the soldiers becoming weapons, in ‘Sentry’, Owen specifically personifies the word ‘frantic’ in “frantic shell” creating a chaotic scene, this personification also dehumanises and devalues the soldiers to mere weapons in the war that can be used and disposed of just like the weapons. This links to his earlier poem, ‘Anthem of Doomed Youth’ when the soldiers are called ‘cattle’ creating the idea that the soldiers are merely a mass of animals easily slaughtered thoughtlessly.

Once of Owen’s most famous poems was written a year later, ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’ is littered with irony, vivid grotesque imagery and powerful paradoxes. The title itself is ironic, an old Latin phrase glorifying war, also suggesting how humans haven’t learnt through previous wars. The title was meant to shock the civilians as many believed it was a good and honourable thing to fight for your country, yet they were deceived in its true reality.  Straight away, Owen writes of the suffering of soldiers who were “bent double, like old beggars under sacks”, this paradox creates the vivid and powerful image of these soldiers barely walking, limping “blood-shod”. The use of the word ‘shod’ is usually referenced to horses; horses are usually referenced to hard, exhausting work. The use of this word suggests how the soldiers are forced to endure this exhausting war, once again Owen describes the soldiers as dehumanised, merely tools used in a mass production.

Owen focuses on the use of vivid grotesque imagery throughout his poetry to expose the harsh and gruesome realities of war. In ‘A Terre’ Owen tells us of the physical and mental loss of an officer trapped in his deteriorating body, a contrast to the glorified propaganda published in Britain during the war. Owen talks about the glorification of war through such things like medals described as “Discs to make eyes close”, these discs desired by soldiers spurred on by propaganda blinding them from the horrors and true reality of war. The officer describes the mental and physical effects of his condition that has de-humanised him, “I’m blind and three parts shell,” the war has not only destroyed his physical and mental state but has become a part of him.

One of Owen’s later poems, ‘Disabled’ describes how war has dehumanised a soldier after he was severely wounded in battle. His disability seems to isolate him through his dehumanisation from war, not only from society but from basic bodily functions. Owen writes how this soldier will “never feel again how slim girls’ waists are”, instead they touch him “like some queer disease”. The lines full of grief and sorrow represent Owen’s own sadness at the suffering the soldiers were forced to endure while fighting for their glorious country.

Overall, I believe throughout Owen’s poetry he has used dismissive and bitter tones and numerous devices to express the extensive suffering and sacrifices made by soldiers fighting for their country. The theme of dehumanisation is present throughout his poetry as he captures the very essence and emotion of these soldiers suffering the chaos and harsh reality of war.


‘A Terre’-Wilfred Owen November 2, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — sophiejones01 @ 6:29 pm

Sit on the bed; I’m blind, and three parts shell,
Be careful; can’t shake hands now; never shall.
Both arms have mutinied against me — brutes.
My fingers fidget like ten idle brats.

I tried to peg out soldierly — no use!
One dies of war like any old disease.
This bandage feels like pennies on my eyes.
I have my medals? — Discs to make eyes close.
My glorious ribbons? — Ripped from my own back
In scarlet shreds. (That’s for your poetry book.)

A short life and a merry one, my brick!
We used to say we’d hate to live dead old, —
Yet now . . . I’d willingly be puffy, bald,
And patriotic. Buffers catch from boys
At least the jokes hurled at them. I suppose
Little I’d ever teach a son, but hitting,
Shooting, war, hunting, all the arts of hurting.
Well, that’s what I learnt, — that, and making money.
Your fifty years ahead seem none too many?
Tell me how long I’ve got? God! For one year
To help myself to nothing more than air!
One Spring! Is one too good to spare, too long?
Spring wind would work its own way to my lung,
And grow me legs as quick as lilac-shoots.
My servant’s lamed, but listen how he shouts!
When I’m lugged out, he’ll still be good for that.
Here in this mummy-case, you know, I’ve thought
How well I might have swept his floors for ever,
I’d ask no night off when the bustle’s over,
Enjoying so the dirt. Who’s prejudiced
Against a grimed hand when his own’s quite dust,
Less live than specks that in the sun-shafts turn,
Less warm than dust that mixes with arms’ tan?
I’d love to be a sweep, now, black as Town,
Yes, or a muckman. Must I be his load?

O Life, Life, let me breathe, — a dug-out rat!
Not worse than ours the existences rats lead —
Nosing along at night down some safe vat,
They find a shell-proof home before they rot.
Dead men may envy living mites in cheese,
Or good germs even. Microbes have their joys,
And subdivide, and never come to death,
Certainly flowers have the easiest time on earth.
“I shall be one with nature, herb, and stone.”
Shelley would tell me. Shelley would be stunned;
The dullest Tommy hugs that fancy now.
“Pushing up daisies,” is their creed, you know.
To grain, then, go my fat, to buds my sap,
For all the usefulness there is in soap.
D’you think the Boche will ever stew man-soup?
Some day, no doubt, if . . .
Friend, be very sure
I shall be better off with plants that share
More peaceably the meadow and the shower.
Soft rains will touch me, — as they could touch once,
And nothing but the sun shall make me ware.
Your guns may crash around me. I’ll not hear;
Or, if I wince, I shall not know I wince.
Don’t take my soul’s poor comfort for your jest.
Soldiers may grow a soul when turned to fronds,
But here the thing’s best left at home with friends.

My soul’s a little grief, grappling your chest,
To climb your throat on sobs; easily chased
On other sighs and wiped by fresher winds.

Carry my crying spirit till it’s weaned
To do without what blood remained these wounds.

In this poem Owen focuses on exposing the harsh and gruesome realities of war and the use of propaganda to glorify the war to get boys to enlist. It is written in first person, the narrator a dying officer. Owen tells us of the physical and mental loss of an officer trapped in his deteriorating body, a contrast to the glorified propaganda published in Britain during the war.

Owen talks about the glorification of war through such things like medals  described as “Discs to make eyes close”, these discs desired by soldiers spurred on by propaganda blinding them from the horrors and true reality of war. The officer describes the mental and physical effects of his condition that has de-humanised him,  “I’m blind and three parts shell,” was has not only destroyed his physical and mental state but has become a part of him. Owen frequently writes about how war is something unnatural and dehumanises the soldiers fighting in his work such as in ‘Dulce et Decorum est’ where Owen describes the soldiers as ‘cattle’ dehumanising them.

The deteriorating officer seems to be waiting for something that will allow him to escape his suffering, death perhaps? He talks about rats and how they will “never come to death” suggesting how these rodents have more freedom than his damaged body and the dying soldiers. The broken form and structure of the poem suggests a reflection of the officers broken and damaged state of body and mind from his time in the battlefield. The officer questions his worth when asks the readers “or a muckman. Must I be his load?”, questioning whether he is someone’s waste, the waste of the battlefield perhaps? This links into ‘Dulce et Decorum est’ as the soldiers are described as being ‘flung’ as if they have no worth.

Owen also uses nature imagery, a feature found across many of his poems such as ‘Exposure’ when he describes the  “merciless iced east winds that knife us” portraying how nature is working against the soldiers to express the abnormality of war itself. In ‘A Terre’, the officer talks about how he will soon be “one with nature, herb, and stone” and how “Spring wind would work its own way to my lung, And grow me legs as quick as lilac-shoots” suggesting how he will soon meet death and be buried back into the Earth to become one with nature. The officer also talks about the comfort of old age, something he will never experience, a harsh reality for thousands of young soldiers. The officer talks about the irony of being patriotic  “I’d willingly be puffy, bald, And patriotic”, this irony about British propaganda is hard hitting as the soldiers war experience is the complete contrast to the glorified propaganda they once read, changing their patriotism into bitterness due to their everyday chaotic atmosphere and the horrors they faced.

Owen again pours the everyday tragedy and harsh reality into his writing creating a true reflection of what the soldiers really faced whilst they endured the war.


‘The Sentry’-Wilfred Owen November 1, 2013

Filed under: Uncategorized — sophiejones01 @ 6:41 pm

‘The Sentry’ was written by Wilfred Owen whilst he received hospital treatment in Craiglockhart, Edinburgh in 1917. Owen tells us of the horrific experiences soldiers endured through the war, focusing specifically on a memory of when a sentry was blasted from his post and consequently blinded. Owen’s description and use of graphic imagery throughout this poem describes the traumatic event and impresses this gruesome image in our minds, making it even more poignant when we consider this as a real life experience for soldiers fighting in the war.

Alliteration, a technique found frequently in Owen’s poems, is used here on letters such as ‘t’ when he describes “the wild chattering of his broken teeth” giving a broken sound to the sentence, mirroring the broken fragmentation of the soldiers lives as they fight for their country. In ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’, Owen also uses this technique to replicate the “stuttering rifles rapid rattle” sounds of the weapons used in war, although Owen uses alliteration to replicate the sound of the weapons in the battlefield in ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’, here it is also used to replicate the harsh sounds of the soldiers in the battlefield.

Owen also uses repetition as a sound device to possibly reflect the sounds of the battlefield. The lines “And gave us hell, for shell on frantic shell” and  “mud in ruck on ruck” gives the poem a regular rhythm portraying the frequent and relentless attack of bombs dropping down on the soldiers and the chaos surrounding them. The personification of the weapons, specifically the word ‘frantic’ in “frantic shell” creates a chaotic scene, this personification also dehumanises and devalues the soldiers to mere weapons in the war that can be used and disposed of just like the weapons. This again links to ‘Anthem of Doomed Youth’ when the soldiers are called ‘cattle’ creating the idea that the soldiers are merely a mass of animals easily massacred.

The punctuation used in ‘The Sentry’ is littered with full stops, commas, colons, semi-colons and dashes breaking up sentences mirroring the movements and sounds of the chaotic atmosphere and the panic and confusion the soldiers are experiencing in war. Owen also uses specific word choices to create a vivid mental image of the soldiers and their everyday experiences in war “I can’t,” he sobbed. Eyeballs, huge-bulged like squids”, the word choice of ‘squids’ gives an repulsive image of the suffering of the soldiers. Owen uses these words to portray and get his readers to imagine the appalling scenes of war as an regular occurrence. In ‘Dulce et Decorum est’ Owen describes the soldiers “guttering, choking, drowning”, the verbs bringing action to the poem; mimicking the action on the battlefield and the overall helplessness feeling of war itself.

In the last line “I see your lights!” But ours had long died out”, the light could focus on a religious element, the light representing hope or ‘the light at the end of the tunnel’ portraying his near-death experience. The last line is especially powerful in its ambiguity as the sentry mistakes the light for a candle flame, however the source of the light is left unanswered. The light could represent hope and the soldiers hope being “long died out”, a perfect analysis from Owen describing the hopelessness feeling of war itself.

Owen also uses pathetic fallacy presenting nature as a theme in ‘The Sentry’. The lines “Rain guttering down in waterfalls of slime Kept slush waist-high and rising hour by hour” captures the idea that nature has become an enemy to the British soldiers, this use of pathetic fallacy gives the poem a sense of unease as the rain gutters down in ‘waterfalls of slime’ portraying nature as unnatural; representing war as unnatural.  This also links into Owen’s poem ‘Futility’ where he uses this technique on the words ‘sun’ and ‘snow’ contrasting two ideas of hope and despair. This could also reflect the two different opinions on war, the sun being the patriotic war poetry heard by the citizens at home by poets such as Jessie Pope, the snow being the grim reality of war Owen writes about.

Once again, Owen captures the very essence and emotion of the soldiers enduring the everyday life of the catastrophic war in this poem.



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